Thursday, October 14, 2010

Attributed and expected effects of Global Warming

Global warming may be detected in natural, ecological or social systems as a change having statistical significance. Attribution of these changes e.g., to natural or human activities, is the next step following detection.

Natural systems

Global warming has been detected in a number of systems. Some of these changes, e.g., based on the instrumental temperature record, have been described in the section on temperature changes. Rising sea levels and observed decreases in snow and ice extent are consistent with warming. Most of the increase in global average temperature since the mid-20th century is, with high probability, atttributable to human-induced changes in greenhouse gas concentrations.

Even with current policies to reduce emissions, global emissions are still expected to continue to grow over the coming decades. Over the course of the 21st century, increases in emissions at or above their current rate would very likely induce changes in the climate system larger than those observed in the 20th century.

In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, across a range of future emission scenarios, model-based estimates of sea level rise for the end of the 21st century (the year 2090-2099, relative to 1980-1999) range from 0.18 to 0.59 m. These estimates, however, were not given a likelihood due to a lack of scientific understanding, nor was an upper bound given for sea level rise. Over the course of centuries to millennia, the melting of ice sheets could result in sea level rise of 4–6 m or more.

Changes in regional climate are expected to include greater warming over land, with most warming at high northern latitudes, and least warming over the Southern Ocean and parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. Snow cover area and sea ice extent are expected to decrease. The frequency of hot extremes, heat waves, and heavy precipitation will very likely increase.
Ecological systems

In terrestrial ecosystems, the earlier timing of spring events, and poleward and upward shifts in plant and animal ranges, have been linked with high confidence to recent warming. Future climate change is expected to particularly affect certain ecosystems, including tundra, mangroves, and coral reefs. It is expected that most ecosystems will be affected by higher atmospheric CO2 levels, combined with higher global temperatures. Overall, it is expected that climate change will result in the extinction of many species and reduced diversity of ecosystems.

Social systems

There is some evidence of regional climate change affecting systems related to human activities, including agricultural and forestry management activities at higher latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Future climate change is expected to particularly affect some sectors and systems related to human activities. Low-lying coastal systems are vulnerable to sea level rise and storm surge. Human health will be at increased risk in populations with limited capacity to adapt to climate change. It is expected that some regions will be particularly affected by climate change, including the Arctic, Africa, small islands, and Asian and African megadeltas. In some areas the effects on agriculture, industry and health could be mixed, or even beneficial in certain respects, but overall it is expected that these benefits will be outweighed by negative effects.

Source :

see also :
Global Warming

Global Warming

Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation. According to the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global surface temperature increased 0.74 ± 0.18 °C (1.33 ± 0.32 °F) during the 20th century. Most of the observed temperature increase since the middle of the 20th century has been caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, which result from human activity such as the burning of fossil fuel and deforestation. Global dimming, a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric aerosols that block sunlight from reaching the surface, has partially countered the effects of warming induced by greenhouse gases.

Climate model projections summarized in the latest IPCC report indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise a further 1.1 to 6.4 °C (2.0 to 11.5 °F) during the 21st century.The uncertainty in this estimate arises from the use of models with differing sensitivity to greenhouse gas concentrations and the use of differing estimates of future greenhouse gas emissions. An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice. Other likely effects include changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields. Warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe, though the nature of these regional variations is uncertain. As a result of contemporary increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, the oceans have become more acidic; a result that is predicted to continue.

The scientific consensus is that anthropogenic global warming is occurring. Nevertheless, political and public debate continues. The Kyoto Protocol is aimed at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration to prevent a "dangerous anthropogenic interference". As of November 2009, 187 states had signed and ratified the protocol.

Source :

see also :
Attributed and expected effects of Global warming

Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Terms in FORUM


The moderators (short singular form: "mod") are users (or employees) of the forum who are granted access to the posts and threads of all members for the purpose of moderating discussion (similar to arbitration) and also keeping the forum clean (neutralizing spam and spambots etc.). Because they have access to all posts and threads in their area of responsibility, it is common for a friend of the site owner to be promoted to moderator for such a task. Moderators also answer users' concerns about the forum, general questions, as well as respond to specific complaints. They also can do anything to lend a helping hand to a user in need. Moderators themselves may have ranks: some may be given mod privileges over only a particular topic or section, while others (called 'global' or 'super') may be allowed access anywhere. Common privileges of moderators include: deleting, merging, moving, and splitting of posts and threads, locking, renaming, stickying of threads, banning, suspending, unsuspending, unbanning, warning the members, or adding, editing, removing the polls of threads. 'Junior Modding' or 'Backseat Modding' can refer negatively to the behavior of ordinary users who take a moderator-like tone in criticizing other members.

Essentially, it is the duty of the moderator to manage the day-to-day affairs of a forum or board as it applies to the stream of user contributions and interactions. The relative effectiveness of this user management directly impacts the quality of a forum in general, its appeal, and its usefulness as a community of interrelated users.


The administrators (short form: "admin") manage the technical details required for running the site. As such, they may promote (and demote) members to moderators, manage the rules, create sections and sub-sections, as well as perform any database operations (database backup etc.). Administrators often also act as moderators. Administrators may also make forum-wide announcements, or change the appearance (known as the skin) of a forum.

The term prune used extensively in administration panels is synonymous with delete or remove. The term comes from pruning, the practice of removing diseased, non-productive, or otherwise unwanted portions from a plant.


A post is a user submitted message enclosed into a block containing the user's details and the date and time it was submitted. Members are usually allowed to edit or delete their own posts. Posts are contained in threads, where they appear as boxes one after another. The first post starts the thread; this may be called the TS (thread starter) or OP (original post). Posts that follow in the thread are meant to continue discussion about that post, or respond to other replies; it is not uncommon for discussions to be derailed.

On Western forums, the classic way to show a member's own details (such as name and avatar) has been on the left side of the post, in a narrow column of fixed width, with the post controls located on the right, at the bottom of the main body, above the signature block. In more recent forum software implementations the Asian style of displaying the members' details above the post has been copied.

Posts have an internal limit usually measured in characters. Often one is required to have a message of minimum length of 10 characters. There is always an upper limit but it is rarely reached – most boards have it at either 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 or 50,000 characters.

Most forums keep track of a user's postcount. The postcount is a measurement of how many posts a certain user has made. Users with higher postcounts are often considered more reputable than users with lower postcounts. However, some forums have disabled postcounts in the hopes that doing so will reduce the emphasis on quantity over quality of information.


A thread (sometimes called a topic) is a collection of posts, usually displayed from oldest to latest, although this is typically configurable: options for newest to oldest and for a threaded view (a tree-like view applying logical reply structure before chronological order) can be available. A thread is defined by a title, an additional description that may summarize the intended discussion, and an opening or original post (common abbreviation 'OP', which can also mean original poster) which opens whatever dialogue or makes whatever announcement the poster wished. A thread can contain any number of posts, including multiple posts from the same members, even if they are one after the other.

A thread is contained in a forum, and may have an associated date which is taken as the date of the last post (options to order threads by other criteria are generally available). When a member posts in a thread it will jump to the top since it is the latest updated thread. Similarly, other threads will jump in front of it when they receive posts. When a member posts in a thread for no reason but to have it go to the top, it is referred to as a bump or bumping. Threads which are important but rarely receive posts are stickyed (or, in some software, 'pinned'). A sticky thread will always appear in front of normal threads, often in its own section.

A thread's popularity is measured on forums in reply (total posts minus one – the opening post) counts. Some forums also track page views. Threads meeting a set number of posts or a set number of views may receive a designation such as "hot thread" and be displayed with a different icon compared to others threads. This icon may stand out more to emphasize the thread.

Yahoo messenger enabled 3G video calling to iPhone and Android

Yahoo continues to work at their own pace in the improvement of its main applications, this time we told you about Messenger, Soon to be updated with the ability to fashion in mobile telephony: video calls.

Apple has just approved and updated Yahoo Messenger application for iPhone to makes it possible for video calls from the iPhone 4 and other versions of Yahoo Messenger client for mobile and desktop. we already have Yahoo Messenger available in the AppStore, now this application is valid for the iPhone and iPod Touch allows us to get in touch with our friends.

Starting today, thanks to Messenger can not only talk to our friends, but also make voice calls and video streaming of live video. You can also call landlines and mobile phones at reduced prices with Messenger.

The application, Which also exists the version for computers known as Yahoo Messenger Would be Free, As similar as Fring. Unlike FaceTime the service free video calls Of Apple for iPhone 4, Yahoo Messenger either work on networks Wi-Fi or 3G .


Tuesday, October 12, 2010

What is FORUM ??

An Internet forum, or message board, is an online discussion site where people can hold conversations in the form of messages posted. This is very different from the chat where the message is displayed in real-time, whereas in a forum to view the new message then should we see on the page (thread) that we want. Also, depending on the level of user access and / or forum set-up, posted a message may need to be approved by a moderator before becoming visible.

Forums have their own language, for example a single conversation called 'Threads'. Forum structure usually consists of: forum - subforum - topic - thread - answer.

Depending on the forum set-up, the user can be as anonymous or subscribe to a forum and then log-in to be able to send messages / posts. Usually you do not have to log in to read the messages there.

Okay, enough for now ... if some want to add or comments, will gladly welcome because sharing knowledge is beautiful ..


Friday, October 8, 2010

How to optimize your Blog sidebar

Hai guys.. do you know how to optimize your sidebar and what are required in the sidebar?
  • Remove unnecessary information from your sidebar: Most of the themes come with Meta data information in the sidebar where you can find links like Login, XHTML Valid etc. These are not useful for your readers. You can also remove the Calender from the sidebar unless you feel that its very important for your blog.
  • Remove monthly archives from the sidebar: A separate page can be created for archives where it can be viewed based on category or month.
  • Remove unnecessary badges: Many of directories where you submit your blog requires to add the directory badge to your sidebar. These directories can only bring very little traffic to your blog and also these scripts may take time to load as well.
  • Add popular posts section in your sidebar so that older posts which were popular will get attention.
  • Do not add more than one blog community in the sidebar. It has been found that adding MyBlogLog readers to the sidebar can increase the load time. If you need to keep blog community, do not keep more than one. Further, restrict the number of readers to 5 or 10 so that the images will load faster.
  • Remove recent comments from sidebar: Recent comments are not useful to the readers as it provides only a part of the comment with the comment author name. If you need to show some link love, you can add Top Commentators to the sidebar which will also increase the comments on your blog.
Or you can also :
  • Show only 5 top commentator as it gives load on sidebar.php’s GET DATA function.
  • Use Small Image size and only 2 to 3 columns in a MyBlogLog widget for faster loading.
  • For affiliates, use self hosted images for faster load of image.
  • Remove special category posts listing from Sidebar.

If you have any more suggestion or if you disagree to any of the points, please share your thoughts.

Thursday, October 7, 2010

Two Keys Success In Online Business

I just interviewed many people, especially those who depend on online earning for their monthly salary. I started from new beginner until those who can be considered as a successful publisher. And what did they say aout how to be a success man? Not too many. Most of them believe that there are two keys success in online business, firstly is “focus” then secondly is “hard work”. They said that only with two key mentioned, they become rich with more than ten thousand dollars in every month. In case we’re living in the third world country, that’s a big amount of money, right? And I am pretty sure that it’s bigger than the official salary of any minister in Indonesia. However, although two keys success in online business above look very short and simple, but it’s not easy to do. Mostly, we fail because we don’t focus then drown into an endless boredom. So, here I will add another crucial keys for it. Do you want to know that? For me, instead what I’ve mentioned above, we still need “patience”. Don’t force yourself to get one day success. All needs a time and you should believe that all good things come to those who focus, hard working an patience.

Well, I think that’s all for this morning. If you have another idea, you’re always welcome to leave a feedback. Otherwise, just think about it for a while then reform your brain to start again. Good bye and I will see you tomorrow.


Dofollow Blog List

Hello .. want to get free backlinks?

Here I provide a list of dofollow blogs Indonesian language.

By giving a comment on the blog, then you will get free backlinks from your blog koment .

Interested? please try, to make sure the blog below is dofollow or not, please check yourself : D

Dofollow Blog List :

Peanut-Butter Cake Recipe

Peanut-Butter Cake Recipe

  • 175 gr smooth peanut butter
  • 100 gr fresh butter
  • 100 gr of refined sugar
  • 60 gr sugar palm
  • 120 gr wheat flour (sifted)
  • 1 / 2 teaspoon baking soda (sifted)
  • 1 / 2 tsp vanilla powder
  • 1 chicken eggs
  • 50 gr of peeled peanuts (roasted and roughly chopped)

How to Make :

  • Beat the butter together with peanut butter, powdered sugar, brown sugar and vanilla until smooth.
  • Add the eggs, beat until blended.
  • Add the flour and baking soda, stirring until smooth.
  • Form the dough into balls and press to widen.
  • Place on flat baking pan, put enough distance between them.
  • Press the surface of the cake batter with back of fork until slightly flattened.
  • Sprinkle evenly with chopped peanuts on top.
  • Bake in oven with a temperature of 160 ยบ C for 25 minutes, until dry and cooked.
  • Remove, cool and store in jars and ready to enjoy

Cooking Recipes - Chocolate Ice Cream

Cooking Recipes - Chocolate Ice Cream


* 1 / 4 cup cocoa
* 1 / 2 cup granulated sugar
* 3 eggs yolks
* 1 / 2 cup whole milk
* 2 tea spoon cornstarch
* Vanilla to taste


* Cook the sugar, milk and vanilla until boil.
* Combine with flour maizena (
cornstarch) , chocolate and water.
* Enter the egg yolks and milk little by little and then boiled again until boiling.
* After boiling, remove and let stand until heat is reduced.
* Enter into the refrigerator.
* If you have hard ice cream means you are ready to serve.

Enjoy ......

Recipes - Chicken Cordon Bleu

Recipes - Chicken Cordon Bleu


2 chicken breasts, skinless
2 pieces of sliced roast beef (roast beef)
2 teaspoons mustard
salt & pepper to taste

wheat flour (plain flour)
bread crumbs (bread crumbs)
1 egg beaten

How to:

Cut the chicken breasts horizontally (wide), but do not get truncated. Open in the middle, coat with mustard, salt & pepper.
2. Place roast beef in the center of chicken breasts, cover again. If necessary, skewer with a toothpick so as not to open. Put in refrigerator for 30 minutes.
3. Labur chicken breasts with flour, then dip in beaten eggs. After that labur with bread flour until the whole surface of the coated chicken breasts.
4. Fry over low heat first. After 3 / 4 cooked, raise the fire. Do not forget to discard toothpicks after cooking, before the serve.
5. Serve with ketchup or chili sauce ABC.

Enjoy .....

Wednesday, October 6, 2010

How to create Category on Blogspot

Here I will give a tutorial how to create a "Category" on blogspot. Articles that we make sure we need to classify it? This is done so that the visitors on our blog is not difficult to find the desired article.


* Create Category / Label

Select or check the article to be labeled / categorized. Then in the combo box (which is writing "label action") select "New Label" and then give the name of that label.
Done, easy is not it??

* Delete Categories / Labels
Check the post you wish to remove the label, then click the combo box then click the label under the words "Remove label", done....

* Changing Category / Label
Remove existing label first, then create/change the new label.

Then how do I install / display it on a blog?

1. Click Template -> Page Elements
2. Add page elements and then select Label then set yourself there .. hehehe
must have all already know how..

Good luck ... enjoy ..